COLD WAR OVERVIEW

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COLD WAR OVERVIEW

Post  Garrettchi on Wed Jun 03, 2009 11:31 am

I am handing out printed copies of this tomorrow... but just so you could have it accessible electronically, it is also saved in your Grade 11, USH folder.

COLD WAR OVERVIEW

I. COLD WAR BEGINNINGS 1945-1960
A. TRUMAN (1945-1952) and STALIN (1925-1953)
1. Division of Germany into occupation zones
2. Atomic bomb
3. Marshall Plan
4. Berlin blockade and Berlin Airlift...
5. Truman Doctrine (Greece & Turkey)  CONTAINMENT
6. NATO (1949) and Warsaw Pact (1955)
7. CIA, National Security Council
8. McCarthyism / Red Scare / HUAC / Loyalty Review Boards
9. Korean War (1950-1953)
B. EISENHOWER (1952-1960) and KHRUSCHEV (1953ish-1964)
1. Height of McCarthyism until he goes too far and Ike ends it
2. Ended Korean War stalemate at 38th parallel threatening to use nuclear weapons
3. Domino Theory
4. Massive Retaliation: Eisenhower threatened the USSR with “massive retaliation,” or nuclear war, against Soviet aggression or the spread of Communism. Better to spend money on bigger bombs, more destructive instead of conventional army.
5. Covert action using the newly created CIA to help overthrow unfriendly governments in developing countries (Mossadegh in Iran 1953, Arbenz Guzman in Guatemala 1954)
6. Committed funds and military “advisers” to Vietnam to help fight Ho Chi Minh’s Communist forces after Dien Bien Phu fell and the French kicked out
7. Suez Canal Crisis Eisenhower Doctrine: a country could request American economic assistance and/or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state. Eisenhower singled out the Soviet threat in his doctrine by authorizing the commitment of U.S. forces "to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations, requesting such aid against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism." Was made in response to the possibility of a generalized war, threatened as a result of the USSR’s attempt to use the Suez Crisis as a pretext to enter Egypt (who claimed—positive neutrality). Basically, it committed the US to intervening or “helping” countries in the Middle East to secure oil supply safe from “communism”
8. Brinksmanship: international game of chicken…hope other guy blinks first best seen in Cuban Missile Crisis
9. Sputnik in 1957 launches Space Race create NASA and National Defense Education Act

II. COLD WAR HEATS UP John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) and Khruschev
A. "Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we will pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, to assure the survival and the success of liberty." Inaugural Address, still believes in containment, domino theory and is tough on communism
B. JFK calls for military strength and unison in the struggle against communism, but balances this with hopes for disarmament and global cooperation.
C. Flexible Response: response to skepticism over Eisenhower’s “massive retaliation” which left few options, defeat on the ground or nuke ‘em! Flexible response calls for mutual deterrence at strategic, tactical, and conventional levels, giving the US the capability to respond to aggression across the spectrum of warfare, not limited only to nuclear weapons. Importance was also placed on counterinsurgency and the development of unconventional military forces, unconventional tactics, and “civic action” programs (Alliance for Progress, Peace Corps, etc)
D. CUBA:
1. Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961), planned under Eisenhower, CIA trained anti-Castro Cuban exiles, but JFK denied air support and Castro anticipated attack. Humiliating defeat for US and JFK… this plus other assassination attempts led Castro into the arms of the Soviets…we need protection
2. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962): closest the world ever came to nuclear war, lucky the other guy blinked first brinksmanship, back channel negotiations led to withdrawal of Soviet missiles from Cuba in exchange for US withdrawal of secret missiles in Turkey...The world exhaled, Kennedy looked like a bit of a hero, Khruschev lost face.
E. Berlin Wall (1961 built by Soviets to keep people from crossing from East Berlin to West) JFK--) “ich bin ein Berliner” speech
F. Latin America Alliance for Progress, “a vast cooperative effort, unparalleled in magnitude and nobility of purpose, to satisfy the basic needs of the American people for homes, work and land, health and schools – techo, trabajo y tierra, salud y escuela.” Call to unite Latin American democracies, promise economic aid and promote social changes they desperately needed…preemptive action to keep communism from taking root. Unfortunately governments squandered much of the aid (which was less than promised), much of it went to defense of these countries US military bases, and some ended up supporting corrupt govts. Under Johnson, funds for social programs dry up, mainly military aid.
G. Peace Corps
H. Vietnam: committed thousands of American troops to South Vietnam to support Ngo Dinh Diem's corrupt regime but claimed the troops were merely “military advisors.” Finally gave up on supporting Diem and authorized assassination…ironically 3 weeks later, he himself was assassinated.

III. COLD WAR ENTRENCHED
LYNDON BAINES JOHNSON 1964-1968 and BRESHNEV (1964-1982)
A. VIETNAM: Gulf of Tonkin incident and resolution, escalation, draft, Tet Offensive, etc. LBJ—“minimum possible” to keep SVietnam from going commie, turned out to be a full-scale war
B. Latin America: called for the United States to focus on anti-communism and protecting U.S. economic interests as the central goals of its hemispheric policy, with a corresponding de-emphasis on promoting internal social reform or representative democratic institutions in Latin America. 1965 U.S. Marines sent to Dominican Republic to fight Communism
C. Both LBJ and Breshnev seemed to be more hardliners in their handling of Cold War
D. Soviets crush Prague uprising in Czechoslovakia in 1968

IV. REALPOLITIK, DÉTENTE & COLD WAR
A. RICHARD NIXON (1968-1974) and Breshnev
1. VIETNAM “linkage” w/ USSR & China to try to cut off supply to N Viet, “Vietnamization,” “Peace with honor” = no real peace, secret expansion of war into Cambodia and Laos
2. Kissinger, foreign policy guru for Nixon and later presidents. “REALPOLITIK” (refers to diplomacy based primarily on practical considerations, rather than ideological notions. The term realpolitik is often used pejoratively to imply politics that are coercive, amoral, or Machiavellian. Focuses on considerations of power, not ideals, morals, or principles.
3. DÉTENTE: relaxation of tensions. “not a love fest” They were staunchly anti-communist, but believed that engagement and negotiation with Communists like USSR and China gave the US a better chance of achieving its goals best relations between US and Soviets during Cold War.
4. SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty)
5. Normalized relations with China, recognized in UN, and historic China visit in 1972
6. LATIN AMERICA
1. Covert action and support of all sorts of military dictators, training of military and others that are fighting “communists” or any type of possible subversives.
2. Operation Condor
3. 1973 coup d’état deposing Salvador Allende in Chile and supported dictator Augusto Pinochet and subsequent repression, and neoliberal economic reforms
7. Paranoia spying on domestic groups Watergate break in White House tapes scandal and resignation facing impeachment
B. GERALD FORD (1974-1976) and Breshnev
1. Pardons Nixon
2. “I’m a Ford, not a Lincoln” (not incredibly brilliant or popular)
3. Economic Crisis worldwide OPEC oil embargo of 1973 and 1979, reaction to ME Policy, Israel, etc STAGFLATION
4. Continuation of Détente Helsinki Accords
5. Mayaguez incident in Cambodia, piracy, Cambodia backs down
V. HUMAN RIGHTS & OIL HEAT UP COLD WAR:
JIMMY CARTER (1976-1980) and Breshnev
A. Moral foreign policy US should be “right and honest and truthful and decent” in dealing with other countries, need to restore int’l credibility
B. HUMAN RIGHTS “Our commitment to human rights is absolute… The powerful must not persecute the weak and human dignity must be enhanced”
C. LATIN AMERICA
1. Remove stigma of US interventionism in region
2. Panama Canal Treaty giving canal back to Panama in 1999
3. Some say Marxist rebel groups like FSLN and FMLN gained power in Nicaragua and El Salvador during this time because the US was not wholeheartedly committed to squashing them
D. USSR IS BIGGEST HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATOR
1. Condemns repression of dissidents, imprisonment, etc.
2. Leads to an end of Détente and worsening US-USSR relations
3. Soviets invade Afghanistan 1979
4. US boycotts Moscow Olympics 1980
E. MIDDLE EAST
1. Camp David Accords, Israel and Egypt make peace
2. Huge first step in Middle East peace process
F. IRANIAN REVOLUTION 1979
1. US had helped depose Mossadegh in 1953 and put in the ruling monarch, SHAH REZA PAHLAVI into power. Supported Shah and his repressive, corrupt regime. He became increasingly unpopular in Iran and his westernizing reforms offended Iranian traditional Muslims.
2. Islamic clergy led opposition to shah Islamic Fundametalism
3. Ayatollah Khomeini led revolution
4. Shah fled to US who gave shah exile
5. Student revolutionaries took 52 Americans hostage at the US Embassy in Tehran IRANIAN HOSTAGE CRISIS, 444 days, failed rescue attempt, total fiasco for Carter, lost support and lost election. Reagan secretly negotiated hostages release for the day he assumed presidency.


VI. REAGAN´S CONSERVATIVE REVOLUTION AND GORBACHEV’S LIBERAL REFORMS THAW OUT THE COLD WAR
A. Ronald Reagan (1st term 1981-1984) and Breshnev
1. Conservative resurgence and Cold War
a. Economic front role of government in the economy, need to keep the US from going Communist, stop these big govt programs
b. Foreign Policy religion, moral majority, fight against communism becomes a struggle between GOOD vs. EVIL, and in this kind of absolute struggle, anything is justified when you´re fighting evil.
2. Economic Policy
1. NEOLIBERALISM & Deregulation
2. REAGANOMICS Supply Side economics Trickle Down Economics
3. Peace through strength Massive military buildup
4. Reagan Doctrine support guerrilla groups fighting communism, evil must be stopped at all costs
1. US supports Mujahadeen (including Osama Bin Laden and many Taliban and Islamic fundamentalists) in Afghanistan fighting Soviets
2. US invades Grenada and deposes communist government
3. Support CONTRAS fighting Sandinistas in Nicaragua (by selling arms to our enemy Iran and selling drugs in the US). IRAN CONTRA SCANDAL
4. Support ARENA and the right wing paramilitaries in El Salvador Civil War
B. Ronald Reagan (2nd term 1984-1988) and Gorbachev (1985-1991)
1. Star Wars (SDI) weapons that could intercept and destroy incoming missiles, satellite run. Prevent MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction)
2. Gorbachev’s reforms: Glasnost, Perestroika, Demokratisatsiia US / USSR Relations improve
3. Mr Gorbachev, tear down this wall!
4. INF (Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty) called for destruction of nuclear weapons, didn’t happen, but it was a first step
5. US economy boomed, reforms hastened USSR’s collapse
6. Nearing the end of the Cold War
VII. END OF THE COLD WAR
A. Eastern Europe revolutions in 1989 (Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Bulgaria)
B. East Germany Fall of the Berlin Wall
C. Yeltsin and the collapse of USSR
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Garrettchi

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